Day 4; D stands for Dag Hammarskjöld – visionary for the future and humanity
“IT IS PLAYING SAFE
THAT WE CREATE A WORLD OF MOST INSECURITY”
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld, born July 29, 1905 in Jönkoping, died September 18, 1961 near Ndola in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), was a Swedish economist, lawyer, nobleman, official, diplomat and writer, but is best known as the UN Secretary General 1953 until his death. Furthermore, he was a member of the Swedish Academy from 1953 and was posthumously awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1961st.
At 18, he was graduated from college and enrolled in Uppsala University. Majoring in French history of literature, social philosophy and political economy, Mr. Hammarskjöld received, with honors, his Bachelor of Arts degree two years later. The next three years he studied economics, at the same university, where he received a “filosofic licenciat” degree in economics at the age of 23. He continued his studies for two more years to become a Bachelor of Laws in 1930.
Hammarskjöls career in Sweden started of with In 1930 Hammarskjöld became secretary of the 1927 unemployment report, and took himself initiate the development of some appendices to the report, several of which were academic dissertations.
As the youngest ever hired Hammarskjold 1936-1945 as secretary in the Ministry of Finance and the 1941-1948 General Council chairman. He also had early international assignments.
He had already become a delegate at the 1944 economic negotiations primarily with Britain and the United States, a post he held until 1948.
Hammarskjöld was also a prominent economist, and he became in 1946 an expert at the State Department in financial matters. As an economist, he was a member of the Board of the National Institute from 1937 and eleven years. He is considered to have been the one who coined the term planned economy. He played a major role in the shaping of Swedish economic policy while in Sweden.
Hammarskjöld was Cabinet Secretary from 1949 to 1951 in the State Department, and then minister without portfolio (Assistant Secretary of the economic issues of an international nature) 1951-1953. In 1950, he became Chairman of the Swedish delegation in Uniscan cooperation and Chairman of the National Economic Association.
When his father died elected Dag Hammarskjöld in 1954 to his successor at the seat 17 of the Swedish Academy. That fiction was an important source of Hammarskjöld was obvious when he gladly quoted favourite poets in public speeches. He might as well analyse classical music, French impressionists and discuss Christian theology.
“Hammarskjöld was proposed March 31, 1953 of the Security Council by 10 votes out of 11 to the UN Secretary General, April 7, 1953, he was elected to the post of the General Assembly by 57 votes to 60, after four years he was re-elected 1957th He had at the force gained reputation through his work for the OEEC, and the item had become vacant when the Soviet Union boycotted the representative Trygve Lie. In fact, Dag Hammarskjöld was UN fifth candidate, when the Soviet refusal to accept the four previous candidates suggested Anthony Eden Hammarskjöld. It was a surprise to most people that Hammarskjöld took the job , because he was a quiet person who did not seem to make any claims career. The representative welcomed him with the words: “Dag Hammarskjöld, you are taking on the world’s most impossible job.”
During the Cong crisis played the Cold War a big role – Patrice Lumumba ha no supporty by the Western powers in the breakaway Katanga declared its independence. Whne Lumumba was murdered in January did Hammarskjöld hold Soviet responsible for the attack, later is was proven that it was the Belgian security service but Soviet officially declared the post of the general secretary vacant in protest for the allegation.
On several occasions after 1957, when Hammarskjöld was unanimously re-elected did Soviet try to get him dedicating for alleged sympathies with the Western bloc. In 1969 after intensified criticism and Nikita Khrushchev demanded the Gerneral Asssmebly to replace Hammarskjöld wit a troikan, when he saids that Hammarskjöld had “abuse the principles of justice” in Congo.
Dag Hammarskjöld was on his way to a meeting with Tshombe in Northrodeisa (Zambia) the night between 17 and 18 September 1961. He was aboard a DC-6 plane with Swedish crew from Malmö, Sweden – the route was kept secret. Hammarskjöld was in company of 15 other delegates from UN. On the plane before take off was also Sture Linnér, Hammarskjölds right hand man – but just before departure they both agreed on that is was a mistake that they both was on the same plane, so Linnér disembarked.
One mile away from the runway the plane crashed. The only survivor was an American sergeant by name Harold Julian, a member of UN;s security forces, but he died later from his injuries.
Hammarskjöds remains were flown back to Sweden and I remember that the plane was flying over our school and we were all standing out on the school yard in respect when the plane passed over it. It was a very sad day – and even if I was only 13 years old – I remember it like it was yesterday. 29 of September his state funeral was TV broadcast and the whole country was in moaning.
In October 1961 UN started an investigation to find out the reason to the accident. There was many theories like; sabotage, air attract, technical failure with the plane or the ”human factor”.
The result was ready in May 1962 and nothing could find in evidence for any theory but that also failed to dismiss any of them. There was very clear suspicions that he had been murdered and there is still no answer to what really happen that night.
According to a survey that the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs had performed at the beginning of the 1990s, seems mostly to indicate that the pilot misjudged the height and flew into the woods. Since then, other information presented, including a security commission in South Africa during the late 1990s, claimed that there was information to suggest that Dag Hammarskjöld was murdered.
Hammarskjöld held honorary degrees from Oxford University, England; in the United States from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Amherst, John Hopkins, the University of California, Uppsala College, and Ohio University; and in Canada from Carleton College and from McGill University.
Between 1 Ave and 2 Ave, E 47 Street – on Manhattan you will find Dag Hammarskjold Plaza – that is also the home to the Katharine Hepburn Garden, the largest public garden on the east side of midtown Manhattan.
And today we have his face on our 1000SEK bill.
There is a lot more to read about this extraordinary man at Dag Hammarskjöld – a man that made a difference – another remarkable Swede – another Swede that had to pay with his life for his beliefs, actions and opinions. He is in good company with Olof Palme, Anna Lindh and Raoul Wallenberg.
In 1986 had Europe a massive breakthrough on a billboard front and got a big seller with the single “The Final Countdown”. The album sold 6.5 million copies worldwide and is still a bestseller. It was number one in the charts in 25 countries. Europe is a Swedish rock band that has sold over 20 million albums. The band was formed in 1978 under the name Force and in 1982 the band name was changed to Europe.
Photos provide by and thanks to:
Gallery 1: un.org & nordfilateli.se
Gallery 2: hd.se/guardian.co.uk/daghammarskjold.se/regeringen se
Gallery 3: en.wikipedia.or & daghammarskjold.se
Gallery 4: time.com/sv.wikipedia.org/weltdemokratie.de/webbtv.nu/daghammarskjold.se
Gallery 5: daghammarskjold.se/sv.wikipedia.org/dn.se/svd.se/aftonbladet.se
Gallery 6: midtownlunch.com/grownyc.org/hammarskjoldplaza.org/artnerdnewyork.com
Gallery 7: en.wikipedia.org & dn.se
Information from wikipedia.org, UN and daghammarskjold.se